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The 12 o'clock experiment

The 12 o'clock experiment

Because it was very late at night, I had already cut the puff pastry into strips for sausages and they thought to surprise me and dressed in a very dubious thing, I had to improvise. What came out ..

  • half a puff pastry dough
  • 5 thick slices of victoria salami
  • 250 ml tomato sauce (homemade)

Servings: 20

Preparation time: less than 30 minutes

RECIPE PREPARATION 12 o'clock experiment:

1. Thaw the dough, and when it is well thawed, sprinkle a little flour on the work table, spread it a little and then cut it into 3 cm long strips.

2. Cut the salami into small pieces (I used the blender) and mix with the tomato sauce.

3. Grease the dough strips with this mixture, knit them in half.

4. Line a tray with baking paper and place in the preheated oven at 180 C for 25 minutes.

Good appetite!

Tips sites


I cut them once more vertically


The success of this 'experiment' depends on the quality of the tomato sauce

Watch your watch! From 12 o'clock you can see and enter into dialogue with 60 artists

Today, from 12 noon to midnight, actors, directors, musicians, etc. will go live with her and the audience, to discuss the artist's condition during the pandemic, when the doors of theaters and performance halls closed, the culture being a little crucified.

"So, there will be actors, directors, singers of light, popular or folk music & # 8230 How to say & # 8211 servants of the stage. This is their job and this is what I know how to do ", Kavinia Șandru told us and she made available to us the list of those who will participate in this marathon" of intellectual protest ", I would say.

Felicia Filip - soprano, Cristian Mihailescu - director, Bogdan Dumitrescu - director, Dana Lemnaru & # 8211 actress Camelia Pintilie & # 8211 actress Izabela Neamtu & # 8211 actress Andrei Duban & # 8211 actor, Gratiela Duban & # 8211 actress, Ovidiu Lipan Tandarica & # 8211 drummer, Mariana Pachis & # 8211 director, Gabriel Cotabita & # 8211 singer, Claudia Motea & # 8211 actress Gabriel Costan & # 8211 actor Misha Ungureanu & # 8211 Folk Brother & # 8211 singer George Matei & # 8211 lyric artist Ramona Iacov & # 8211 actress, Hari Gromosteanu & # 8211 actor, Ovidiu Usvat & # 8211 actor Mirela Retegan & # 8211 Gasca Zurli, Alina Tomi & # 8211 actress, Tomi Cristin & # 8211 actor, Brandusa Novac & # 8211 director, Marius Bodochi & # 8211 actor, Adrian Gazdaru & # 8211 actor, Matilda Pascal Cojocarita & # 8211 popular music performer Stefan Cigu & # 8211 conductor, Mihai Baranga & # 8211 actor Andrei Chireac & # 8211 director, Mihai Napu & # 8211 singer-songwriter Iulian Samson & # 8211 actress, Florin Costache & # 8211 director, Eugen Cristea & # 8211 act or, Cristina Deleanu & # 8211 actor, Ada Lupu Hausvater & # 8211 director Siviu Biris & # 8211 actor, Manuela Harabor & # 8211 actress, Emeric Imre & # 8211 singer-songwriter, Ion Dichiseanu & # 8211 actor, Tudor Giurgiu & # 8211 director , Oana Popa & # 8211 actress, Andrei Paunescu & # 8211 singer-songwriter, Andrea Sovan & # 8211 actress, Andreas Petrescu & # 8211 actor, Radu Micu & # 8211 actor, Bodo & # 8211 Proconsul & # 8211 singer, Dragos Dinca & # 8211 8211 Proconsul - singer, Florin Chilian - singer-songwriter, Lari Georgescu - actor, Monica Davidescu - actress, Aurelian Temisan - singer. They were to confirm the participation of Adrian Nour - actor, Adrian Istodor & # 8211 actor, Antoaneta Cojocaru - actress, Camelia Popa - director, Maia Morgenstern - actress.

Lavinia Șandru, also an actress, will be in video contact with them, and the artists will talk about their purpose in society, about what determined them to take this cultural path and about how difficult it is for them during this period or how they manage to adapt to these pandemic days, which we never thought we would ever experience.

There will be fragments of their lives as artists, their problems that seem unknown to the rulers, a form of intellectual protest. I think it will be interesting for everyone, not just for theater, film and music lovers.

Griffith's experiment

Griffith's experiment, conducted in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, was one of the first experiments to suggest that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation. [1] [2]

Griffith used two strains of Pneumococcus (which infects mice), III-S, (smooth) and II-R. The bacteria of strain III-S are covered with a polysaccharide capsule that protects them from the cells of the host's immune system, resulting in its death by sepsis, while the bacteria of strain II-R do not have the protective capsule and are destroyed by the immune system.

In this experiment, the bacteria from strain III-S were killed by heat, and their remains were added to a culture of bacteria from strain II-R. Neither of the two strains alone (dead III-S strain bacteria and live II-R strain bacteria) managed to kill any mice, but their combination resulted in the death of the host. Griffith was able to isolate both live type II-R and III-S bacteria from the blood of dead mice. Griffith concluded that strain II-R was converted in the deadly III-S strain by a transforming principle which somehow involved the dead bacteria in strain III-S.

Today it is known that the transforming principle what Griffith observed was actually the DNA of the bacteria in strain III-S. Although the bacteria had been killed, the DNA survived the heating process and was taken up by some bacteria from strain II-R. The DNA of strain III-S contains the genes that lead to the formation of the polysaccharide protective capsule. Equipped with this gene, some bacteria from the former II-R strain became protected by the host's immune system, which led to sepsis and death. The exact nature of the transformation principle (namely DNA) was verified in the Avery-McLeod-McCarty and Hershey-Chase experiments.

The history of the only space flight of a Romanian

On May 14, 1981, at 20 and 17 minutes, Bucharest time, on the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the place where the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, flew, the Soyuz-40 spacecraft was launched to the Saliut-6 orbital station. The Soyuz-40 space mission, which took place between May 14 and 22, 1981, lasted seven days, 20 hours, 41 minutes and 52 seconds.

It was the first and only flight made by a Romanian in outer space.

Leonid Ivanovich Popov, a Soviet cosmonaut of Ukrainian origin who was, at that time, the holder of the world record for time spent in the extraterrestrial atmosphere, and the Romanian Dumitru Dorin Prunariu, cosmonaut-researcher, participated in the Soyuz-40 mission. , who became the 103rd man in the world to fly in space.

The reserve crew consisted of Yuri Romanenko (USSR) & # 8211 commander and Dumitru Dediu (Romania) & # 8211 cosmonaut researcher.

The mission was part of the Intercosmos program initiated by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and which involved the selection of cosmonauts-researchers from the Warsaw Pact countries, who would participate with Soviet cosmonauts in space missions. The financial support of the space flight was ensured through a series of compensations between the countries from the former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CAER).

Included in this project, Romania sent into space, until 1989, several complex scientific equipment, placed on board 19 satellites and two Soviet orbital stations.

In Romania, the selection of candidates for space travel began in April 1977.

All candidates rejected

Initially, about 150 pilots of supersonic aircraft and aviation engineers were called.

The medical tests were extremely severe, so in the end, all the candidates were rejected.

A few days later, however, five of them were recalled to the Aviation Medical Center, to resume and complete the tests.

Two gave up on their own initiative, so the three who left for the USSR to continue their training were: Lieutenant-Major Dumitru Prunariu, Captain Cristian Guran and Major Dumitru Dediu.

According to Dumitru Prunariu, the preparation for the flight started in March 1978, in the Star City, located a few kilometers from Moscow, together with cosmonaut candidates from five other countries.

On May 12, 1981, Dumitru Prunariu was officially confirmed as the first nominated for the Romanian-Soviet space flight, along with Soviet cosmonaut Colonel Leonid Popov & # 8211 crew commander, an experienced cosmonaut who had also flown aboard the station. cosmic Saliut-6.

Of all the candidates in the Intercosmos program, Prunariu was the only cosmonaut who obtained the maximum final qualifying exams and tests.

Almost three weeks before the launch, the two crews, the main and the reserve, were brought from the Star City to the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, where they continued their preparations for the launch.

28,000 km / h

On the evening of May 14, 1981, a special bus brought the two cosmonauts from the main crew, equipped for flight, to Platform 17 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome: Colonel Leonid Popov, who a year ago had achieved the longest record in space. 185-day alien, and lieutenant major engineer Dumitru Prunariu.

Two hours before the start, the crew occupied the launch position in the spacecraft's capsule at the top of the carrier rocket, performing a series of tests of the ship's equipment and systems until the actual launch.

At 20.17 (Bucharest time), from the Baikonur cosmodrome, the carrier rocket with the Soyuz-40 spacecraft (with a total weight of 300 tons) was launched, with on board the mixed crew formed by Dumitru Prunariu and Leonid Popov.

After eight minutes and 50 seconds, the spacecraft detached from the last stage of the carrier rocket, already at an altitude of 220 km, approx. 3,000 km from the launch point and moving around the Earth at a speed of 28,000 km / h in an orbit inclined to the Equator by 51.6 degrees.

Prunariu thus became the first Romanian in history to fly in space. According to Intercosmos flight planning, the flight would last almost eight days, between May 14 and 22, 1981.

After entering Earth orbit, checking the technical parameters of the ship in real flight conditions and performing the first orbital maneuver to lift the orbit, which lasted until four o'clock the next morning, the two cosmonauts were allowed to undress the spacesuit. , to switch to the orbital module and rest.

They woke up the next day at 12.00 and, after eating, performed the second maneuver of lifting and correcting the orbit of the spacecraft, in order to start the maneuvers of coupling with the Saliut-6 orbital station.

At the time of coupling, the Soyuz-40 had a relative speed relative to the station of 0.3 m / s.

On May 15, the Soyuz-40 spacecraft docks at the Saliut 6 & # 8211 Soyuz T-4 orbital complex. The moment of coupling was immortalized on film inside the orbital station. The first to pass through the open hatches of the two cosmic objects was Prunariu.

On Saliut 6

On the Saliut 6 orbital station, the two cosmonauts met with Soviet cosmonauts Vladimir Kovalionok and Victor Savinich, who had already been in orbit since March 21, 1981. Together they conducted 22 scientific experiments.

The Capilar complex experiment aimed at developing a technology for obtaining, in space, single crystals with a determined profile, by using the capillary effect under weightless conditions, for possible use in the following stages in order to develop high efficiency technologies.

The Biodose experiment meant the improvement of the knowledge of the cosmic radiation field, and the one called Nanobalance consisted in collecting information on the establishment of thin protective layers of silicon dioxide, under the action of the cosmic environment.

The Astro experiment allowed the study of new possible forms of existence of nuclear matter, while the Reo experiment, proposed by Romanian specialists and conducted in collaboration with the Soviets, was intended to investigate changes in cerebral, central and peripheral blood circulation, which occur in different stages of the space mission.

Other bio-medical experiments were Miocard, intended to study changes during cosmic flight in the cardiovascular system,

Immunity, which studied the influence of space flight conditions on biologically active substances, and the Pneumatic and Collar experiments, which provided data on the cosmonaut's body's reaction during the period of acute adaptation to weightlessness.

The return

On the morning of May 22, 1981, aboard the Saliut-6 & # 8211 Soiuz T-4 & # 8211 Soiuz-40 orbital complex, operations began to prepare for the return to Earth of the first joint Romanian-Soviet space expedition.

The crew of cosmonauts Dumitru Prunariu and Leonid Popov said goodbye to their two colleagues Kovalionok and Savinich, who remained to continue their mission.

At 13.40 (Bucharest time) Soyuz-40 moves away from the orbital complex heading towards Earth. At an altitude of 170 km, somewhere above Africa, at 16.30, the descent capsule detaches from the rest of the spacecraft and continues its journey to Earth, to enter the atmosphere five minutes later.

At 16.56, the joint Romanian-Soviet crew returned safely to Earth.

The descent of the Soyuz-40 landed in the established area, 225 km southeast of the city of Djezkazgan, in the steppe of Kazakhstan.

Asked how he feels after a week spent in a state of weightlessness, in a press conference held the next day, the Romanian cosmonaut said:

"I am just fine. Of course, in the first moments after landing you can feel the difference between the state of weightlessness and the force of attraction of the Earth.

Usually, this is not felt, but as soon as you return from the Cosmos you feel it. You just can't keep your balance. "

Why do the shops close at 18:00, in areas with a high incidence rate. Raed Arafat's explanation

The head of the Department for Emergency Situations, Raed Arafat, states that the shops close at 18:00 to allow customers to get home until the traffic closes at 20:00. & # 8222Everyone goes to the store. If we leave them open until midnight, the world will still go. The store rule was correlated with the traffic ban rule. If the traffic is forbidden at 20.00, then two hours before the shops stop, so that people can get home ", Raed Arafat explains.

In fact, he says that the measures applied in our country are less restrictive than those adopted in other countries and have the role of controlling the increase in the number of cases registered in Romania.

& # 8222Growth is slow, not fast, but it is still growing. The day before yesterday, increases of 0.1 and 0.2 were in 32 counties. This warns us that the situation is not stable. That is why some measures have been taken, even easier than in other countries, which allow us to control the situation and make the vaccination campaign work better ", transmits Arafat.

The stores close at 18:00 on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays, where the incidence rate is higher than 4 per thousand. In areas where the 7.5 threshold is exceeded, the measure applies on all days of the week.

Bucharest differently: The Catelu experiment, a parallel world - Photo report

Between 1955 and 1957, the communists built a neighborhood of minimal housing near the now Mihai Bravu road in Bucharest. Unique in Bucharest, the ensemble of houses drawn as if in indigo is hidden by trees.

There are six streets full of greenery and anyone who gets there by mistake can't help but notice that it's like a kind of parallel world, where the dogs seem to be barking "in a whisper".

In the square formed by the streets of Competition, Nose, Friendship and Courage, you can discover another kind of home. One-storey houses, container style, with shared balconies, tunnels, porches, small rooms.

Brilliant are the porches: wide enough to be not only functional colors, they had a buffer role between the house and the outside.

A little further on, the same buildings, on Doicesti and Fildesului streets. The contrast is visible. Sometimes decorated, with popcorn on the windowsill and in the mini-yard, other times in ruins and full of traces of pigeons, the houses in the neighborhood certainly have a common denominator: peace and greenery.

The "Catelu experiment" was, in fact, an "emergency" housing district, meant to house some of the Bessarabian refugees in Romania, in 1941. Each space was delimited but still united.

Everyone knew everyone, they greeted each other on the street and any intruder was immediately spotted. Thefts or other crimes did not take place there.

Now, things are somehow different. The worries, the lack of money, the relocation of the owners, made the people cool off from each other. Two retirees, going out in the hallway after seeing us with the camera, who have lived there since '58, still remember the times when the community was united and everything was done together.

"Before there were more landlords and we met, we talked. Now there are more tenants who come and go, they don't care," says Ms. Tudor, 80.

Marian Paturcea, a man in his 45s who was just painting his apartment, is a kind of administrator of the block, but he wants us to specify that "there is no association of tenants".

"I have lived here for 45 years, my family has left for the country, we like it because it is quiet, there are no gypsies, Laura Cosoi lives here, somewhere upstairs, on the ground floor. We have a playground, the church, it's a beautiful area. Too bad that we don't have many shops ", the man tells us, which was clearly local, while he was walking us through a set of such houses.

We asked the man what he knew about the "Puppy experiment" and he cut it short: "I don't know what it's about." "I know that Mayor Doncea made them for workers in '58," he says.

The problem of the tenants are the pigeons and the tenants, who do not clean their part of the terrace. "If the mayor's office were involved in something, it would be cleaner, we would make the terrace all the same. laundry on the terrace.

"Well, aren't they all owners here? Why should the town hall do it?" I ask, imagining what a redone, freshly painted and flowered ensemble would look like on the terrace. "Yes, but we can't do it," the woman says, in a tone more than dissatisfied with my question.

Next to a playground is the church. Yellow, with double glazing, air conditioning. The door was closed, but an old man appeared. "Hello! Are you telling us where the father is?" He panics a little. "Wait, I'm going to call him right away." He comes back and hands me a cell phone.

Initially reluctant - that he is not allowed to give statements without the approval of the Patriarchate - the priest Vasile-Adrian Marginean still tells us that the church was built in 2007, with money from the faithful and from the Patriarchate.

"Write there that the state did not give any money," the priest urges me. I then found out that the parish takes care of 1,800 apartments, and about 150 people come to Sunday service. "Most of them are retired, but they are also young," says the priest.

During our walks we met several times with the postwoman who was struggling to find out where the numbers 4 and 5 are and asked who was getting in her way.

The woman with blue eyes and gray and curly hair tells us fluffy: "They could also put common mailboxes on the block, not to go after each box."

Architect: The Catelu experiment has environmental value, not heritage

Stefan Dumitrascu, chief architect of Sector 3, explained for that it is about "an architectural experiment, an urban subdivision, made between 1950-1953 for the shelter of Bessarabian refugees and for the accommodation of some participants in the 1950 Universiade. a neo-Romanian style with environmental value ".

Asked if these buildings should not be protected, for their architectural value, he specified that the listing as a "heritage object" can only be made by the Ministry of Culture and Cults.

"The buildings in this neighborhood are not listed on any document of the Ministry of Culture as protected areas. The mayor's office cannot intervene on the protection of this type of housing. The listing of an entire neighborhood is in the competence of the Ministry of Culture and Cults.

We can take action if there are requests in this regard and someone is campaigning for this listing, "said Stefan Dumitrascu. In his vision, however, the" Catelu experiment "has little chance of being a protected area.

"If you ask me, the way that neighborhood looks would have no chance of obtaining the character of a protected area. I'm not saying that the architecture or atmosphere is not particular, but there is no risk that that specific character of the area will be altered major ", said the chief architect of Sector 3.

The contrast between poverty and wealth, easy to notice in the area of ​​these houses, is explained by the architect through the material condition of the owners.

"Those houses, since 1990, have been sold to tenants, of various invoices, obviously not people with a good financial situation. After the limitation period that Law 112 imposed, in connection with the sale of real estate, many of them have changed The category of citizens who bought these buildings is one with medium to small material possibilities, due to the fact that the usable areas are relatively small ", the architect also told us.

Indeed, the studios from the "Catelu experiment" ensemble hardly exceed 18 sq m and in the kitchen and the very small bathroom, two people can hardly stand.

The Spanish experiment - getting out of economic hibernation. Expert: & bdquoThere are no magic recipes & rdquo

After two weeks of extremely harsh restrictions, in which only the health, food and energy sectors remained active, the Spanish government decided to open non-essential sectors on Monday, allowing the resumption of activity under conditions of increased health security. From Monday, employees who cannot work from home can return to work, mainly targeting the industrial and construction fields. In the latter case, the government prohibits work on buildings that house other people, except in emergencies.

Non-essential activities such as bars and restaurants, except for home delivery, hotels, leisure, cultural and sports centers, shops, except food, remain closed. Schools also remain closed, and those who can still work are those who care for the elderly, minors or people with disabilities.

Travel restrictions remain in force, citizens can only leave the house to buy food and sanitation, to go to work, to the bank, to assist people or dependents and to walk their pet.

The resumption of activity in certain non-essential sectors was compared by Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez as an exit from the economic hibernation imposed two weeks ago and was received reluctantly, being described by political leaders as negligence that can seriously endanger the health of citizens.

The Spanish prime minister has been criticized for hastily easing restrictions, given that the rate of illness and death from coronavirus remains high. Sanchez claims that the health alert remains at the highest level, and the measure, which came into force on Monday, is accompanied by the strengthening of protection measures. Thus, 10 million masks will be distributed to employees who have to use public transport where it is not possible to keep the distance of 1-2 meters between people. Employees who have symptoms of the disease or have been in contact with an infected person are also prohibited from returning to work.

Companies must adapt the work schedule in such a way as to avoid the formation of crowds at the entrance or exit of the units. Individual transport is also recommended.

Experts acknowledge that at this time there is no guarantee as to the results of the measures. "No one knows if the five-day extension of the restrictions will bring a major benefit or the economic impact will be significant," Toni Trilla, an epidemiologist and member of the government's scientific advisory committee, told El Pais. The drastic reduction of mobility occurred with the establishment of the state of emergency, as the executive restricted travel. & bdquoSince then & ndash he specified & ndash urban mobility has been reduced by 70%. After the total closure of the activities, 10% was added. Now there will be 10% more mobility again, but 70% will be reduced. This relaxation involves a risk, but it is modest, says epidemiologist Joan Ramon Villalbi.

Other experts have a different opinion. Virologist Margarita del Val claims that the resumption of industrial activity is a & bdquopripita & rdquo.

& bdquoWe continue blindly. The restrictions are removed without knowing how many people are affected or asymptomatic, which means that at any moment we can face an outbreak, says a representative of the Spanish trade union confederation.

Maintaining drastic restrictions will not stop the spread of coronavirus, experts say. Even if we stay in the house longer, the population will continue to be sensitive to the virus. When the activity is resumed, there will be more infections. "We made an effort to stop the tide, but life goes on," says Javier Arranz, a family doctor's representative.

What exactly will happen, no one knows for sure. "There are no magic recipes," concludes Toni Trilla, an epidemiologist and member of the scientific committee advising the government.

The latest death toll in Spain reached 16,972 on Sunday. At the same time, the total number of illnesses is 166,019. Spain has a population of 47 million. Daily rates of coronary heart disease and death remain high in Spain, but declining compared to the end of March and the beginning of April.

The Philadelphia experiment

The Philadelphia experiment is an alleged military experiment in which the ship USS Eldridge (DE-173) should have been made invisible. The story is generally considered an invention (trickery, aberration). [1] [2] [3]

On January 13, 1955, a well-known researcher of mysterious phenomena, especially the UFO phenomenon, Morris K. Jessup, received a strange letter from a certain Carlos Allende. The letter contained data revealed by this Carlos about his involvement in what he called the "Philadelphia Experiments." In short, Carlos Allende said he was a member of the crew of the destroyer USS Eldridge, an American battleship involved throughout 1943 in a series of experiments related to the ability to hide battleships from radar. The experiments began in early 1943, on the military shipyard in the port of Philadelphia, the series of top secret experiments received the code Rainbow. The experiments were led by physicist Dr. Franklin Reno, but some witnesses interviewed later by Jessup said they observed the physicist Albert Einstein, and a year earlier, Nikola Tesla. In the summer of 1943, more precisely in July, the experiments were almost successful. The equipment installed aboard the USS Eldridge worked perfectly, so that the ship became invisible on radar. The problem that arose was that the huge ship was shrouded, during the experiments, in a gray cloud, strongly electrostatically charged. Witnesses on the ship said the metal equipment emitted strange, blue-green sparks.

Then, on October 28, 1943, the experiment was resumed, apparently to make the vessel invisible to the eye, just as a glass bead disappears into a glass of water. In the morning the experiment started, the ship was surrounded by the famous gray cloud, then the pulsed energy in the equipment was gradually intensified. The sailors heard the rumble of the equipment and the witnesses saw, from the quays, how the ship disappears, together with the gray fog. Interestingly, the trail of the vessel was visible in the water, like the impression of a giant shoe. Then this trace disappeared. The ship had evaporated. Phones immediately rang at the Philadelphia Naval Base, and those at the 600-mile port of Norfolk announced in fright that the USS Eldridge was at the entrance to their port. They couldn't figure out what and how, because the people of Norfolk sounded nervous to say they didn't see the destroyer anymore, and the ship reappeared in its place. The sailors told nightmare scenes, some had disappeared, others had simply burned by spontaneous combustion, however, those who were still on the ship were suffering terribly.

The US Navy immediately ordered the cessation of all experiments, and the ship USS Eldridge was sold, after the war, to the Greek military fleet.

Jessup a cercetat mai îndeaproape cele declarate de Allende, care între timp dispăruse, și a întrebat Marina SUA despre evenimentele din portul Philadelphia pe parcursul anului 1943. Deși inițial a negat vehement, Marina SUA a admis în cele din urmă că au avut loc niște cercetări legate de "aplicarea forței electromagnetice" pentru a ascunde navele de radar. Jessup strânsese deja destule dovezi, dar nu a mai apucat să le facă publice, deoarece s-a sinucis într-o seară ploioasă, aruncându-se de la etajul unui hotel. Aparent, omul nu avea nici un motiv să moară, era în culmea gloriei publicistice, dar ancheta poliției a stabilit că s-a aruncat singur de la fereastră. Dosarul care conținea dovezile legate de "primul experiment reușit de teleportare" a dispărut, iar opinia publică a rămas cu o legendă care probabil nu va fi elucidată niciodată: Ce a fost în dimineața aceea de octombrie 1943 în portul Philadelphia?

Sa faca profit! Cat mai mare si mai facil!

Gazul costa, plamanii tai nu!

Hmmm…. Garnitura de tren si rezervoarele de biodiesel! Rafinaria pare oprita, cel putin pentru moment!

Cu suport politic si primarul corupt, Rafinaria Bunge face profit ca in Congo, pe carca noastra a tuturor si pe sanatatea noastra.

Allan Franklin și Slobodan Perovic , în Experiment in Physics, [1] afirmă că teoriile în știință în general, și în fizică în special, sunt confirmate (temporar) prin experimente care verifică afirmațiile și predicțiile teoriilor, punând astfel bazele cunoașterii științifice. [2] Francis Bacon a fost primul care a susținut conceptul de experiment crucial, care poate decide validitatea unei ipoteze sau teorii. Ulterior, Newton a susținut că teoriile științifice sunt induse direct din rezultatele experimentale și observații, excluzând ipotezele netestate. Hobbes a afirmat, dimpotrivă, că rațiunea umană a precedat tehnicile experimentale, criticând optimismul lui Boyle privind rolul metodei experimentale. [3] În secolul 20, pozitivismul logic separă deducțiile observaționale de cele teoretice. Thomas Kuhn și Paul Feyerabend au criticat această viziune, afirmând că toate experimentele au la bază un cadru teoretic și deci nu pot confirma independent o teorie. Ian Hacking a fost de acord cu această idee, dar afirmă că observațiile rămân de încredere prin confirmări independente. [4] În cazul unui singur sistem experimental viabil, Allan Franklin și Slobodan Perovic propun strategii specifice pentru validarea observației, care, împreună cu strategia lui Hacking, constituie o epistemologie a experimentului:

  1. Verificarea și calibrarea experimentală, cu ajutorul fenomeneor cunoscute.
  2. Reproducerea artefactelor cunoscute în prealabil.
    1. Eliminarea surselor plauzibile de eroare și explicațiile alternative ale rezultatului (”strategia Sherlock Holmes”).
    2. Folosirea rezultatelor pentru a argumenta validitatea lor.
    3. Folosirea unei teorii independente bine-coroborată a fenomenelor pentru a explica rezultatele.
    4. Folosirea unui aparat bazat pe o teorie bine coroborată.
    5. Utilizarea argumentelor statistice. [1]

    Dar aplicarea acestor strategii nu garantează corectitudinea rezultatelor. Din această cauză, fizicienii folosesc mai multe strategii, în funcție de experiment.

    Peter Galison, în How Experiments End (1987), afirmă că experimentele se încheie într-un mod subiectiv, atunci când experții cred că au ajuns la un rezultat valid. [5] Cele mai multe experimente se bazează pe tradițiile în domeniu și experiența personală a cercetătorului (inclusiv presupozițiile sale teoretice), atât în proiectarea experimentului cât și în acceptatrea unei teorii ”care permite” desfășurarea experimentelor. Presupozițiile teoretice ale experimentatorilor sunt acceptate.

    Harry Collins a dezvoltat un argument numit ”regresul experimentatorilor”, [6] conform căruia nu există criterii formale pe care să le poți aplica pentru a decide dacă un aparat experimental funcționează corect sau nu. Ce contează în fapt este negocierea în cadrul comunității științifice, care depinde de ”factori precum interesele carierei, sociale și cognitive ale oamenilor de știință și utilitatea percepută pentru munca viitoare, dar care nu este decisă prin ceea ce putem numi criterii epistemologice sau judecată raționalizată.” [1]

    Pickering susține, de asemenea, că motivele pentru acceptarea rezultatelor sunt utilitatea ulterioară a lor în practica științifică, și acordul lor cu angajamentele comunitare existente. [7] El afirmă că un sistem experimental produce rareori rezultate experimentale valide dacă nu este ajustat în acest sens, și că teoria aparaturii, cât și teoria fenomenelor, determină producerea unui rezultat experimental valid. Ulterior, concluzionează că „rezultatele depind de modul în care este lumea”: „Astfel, felul în care este lumea materială se infiltrează în și infectează reprezentările noastre despre ea într-un mod netrivial și consecvent. Analiza mea arată astfel un angajament intim și reactiv între cunoașterea științifică și lumea materială, care este integrantă practicii științifice”. [8]

    Hacking susține că, în ciuda aparențelor, constructiviștii, precum Collins, Pickering sau Latour, nu cred că faptele nu există sau că nu există realitate. El citează pe Bruno Latour și Steve Woolgar că rezultatul este o consecință a muncii științifice mai degrabă decât cauza ei, [9] [10] într-un relativ consens cu comunitatea științifică.

    Acumularea unei cantități mari de date în cadrul unui experiment poate impune o selecție, prin tehnica reducerii utilizată de fizicieni, a datelor care vor fi folosite. Aceasta poate fi o preocupare epistemologică importantă privind modul de selecție a datelor considerate utile, minimizând probabilitatea unor rezultate neexplorate. [11] În astfel de cazuri, fizicienii aplică o analiză de robustețe în testarea ipotezelor, prin verificarea aparaturii utilizate, și stabilirea unor algoritmi de lucru.

    Rugăciunea puternică pe care e bine să o citești noaptea, între orele 00:00 și 03:00, când cerurile sunt deschise, iar rugăciunea ajunge direct la Dumnezeu! Să spui așa cu mare credință:

    Această rugăciune este foarte puternică şi este bine să o citească creştinul în fiecare zi. Sfinţii Părinţi recomandă să se facă câte 3 metanii la fiecare (iar în zilele când nu se fac metanii să se înlocuiască cu 3 închinăciuni).

    Însă cine nu poate, e bolnav, neputincios sau nu are condiţii, poate să facă măcar o metanie, sau chiar o închinăciune. Dumnezeu primeşte orice osteneală. Însă, cei ce pot şi au evlavie, este bine să respecte rânduiala lăsată de către Sfinţii Părinţi. Când citim această rugăciune, toate puterile cereşti merg chiar în acel moment înaintea lui Dumnezeu şi mijlocesc pentru noi. Este foarte folositoare să se citească şi noaptea între orele 00:00 şi 03:00, când cerurile sunt deschise iar rugăciunea ajunge direct înaintea Stăpânului.

    1. Milostivă să-mi fii mie Preasfântă Treime
    2. Milostivă să-mi fii mie Preasfântă Născătoare de Dumnezeu
    3. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie cei 4 Evanghelişti ai Domnului
    4. Milostiv să-mi fii mie Sfinte Ioane Botezătorule al Domnului
    5. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie cei 12 Apostoli ai Domnului
    6. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie cei 70 Apostoli ai Domnului
    7. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi sfinţii din ceruri şi toate puterile cereşti
    8. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Părinţi din ceruri
    9. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Mucenici din ceruri
    10. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Cuvioşi din ceruri
    11. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Părinţi Ierarhi din ceruri
    12. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Martiri din ceruri
    13. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Prooroci din ceruri
    14. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Pustnici din ceruri
    15. Milostive să-mi fiţi mie toate Sfintele Cuvioase Femei din ceruri
    16. Milostive să-mi fiţi mie toate Sfintele Muceniţe Fecioare din ceruri
    17. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Arhangheli din ceruri
    18. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii Îngeri din ceruri
    19. Milostivi să-mi fiţi mie toţi Sfinţii zilei de astăzi
    20. Milostivă să-mi fii mie toată puterea cea lucrătoare a cerului
    21. Milostiv să-mi fii mie Sfinte Patron al meu (numele)
    22. Milostiv să-mi fii mie Sfinte Patron al casei (numele)
    23. Milostiv să-mi fii mie îngeraşul meu sfânt păzitor.

    Video: Vangelis 12 OClock (January 2022).