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Mexican food

Mexican food

Maybe a hot meal is not suitable with the heat outside, but the fact that you don't have to cook too much is perfect.

  • 200 g salami or spicy sausages
  • 2 canned white beans (I had hot pepper sauce)
  • 1 canned corn grain
  • 1 can diced tomatoes
  • 2 onions
  • 2 cloves of garlic
  • 2 red bell peppers
  • a little bit of oil
  • 1 bay leaf
  • a little vegetable soup
  • salt pepper

Servings: -

Preparation time: less than 30 minutes


Sausages are cut into slices. Drain the corn and rinse with cold water. Chop the onion and garlic and sauté together with the sausages, then add the diced bell peppers and cook a little longer. Add the beans, corn, tomatoes, bay leaf and soup, then cook until the peppers are soft (about 20 minutes). Salt and pepper to taste.

Tips sites


go simple beans or with sauce

Preparation of leek food recipe

Wash and prepare all the vegetables, then cut the onion into scales and the leeks into rounds, but not too thin. If used, chop the red pepper and green onion.

Put the three tablespoons of oil, leeks and onions in a pan. Add salt to them and leave on low to medium heat with a lid for 5 minutes, during which time mix a little.

After 5 minutes you can add the red pepper and green onion. Add black pepper and bay leaf if necessary. Saute the vegetables for another 2-3 minutes.

Tomato juice and a cup of warm water are to be added. Now you can add the olives, after which it is left to boil for another 5-6 minutes. At the end, add the garlic and the leek food is ready.

Red Velvet cake: a refined, sweet and refreshing dessert

You recognize a Red Velvet cake by its appearance: with its red top and snow-white icing. As the name suggests, it is a cake reminiscent of red velvet. It is sweet, but also refreshing, thanks to its cream cheese.

This cake has its origins in the 20th century, in Maryland, United States of America. When food stocks were streamlined during World War II, confectioners used to add boiled beet juice to cake dough to give them a red color. It is said that these are the origins of the famous Red Velvet cake.

Today, the red color of the countertop is given either by beet juice, or food coloring, or by the combination of cocoa, whipped milk and vinegar. None of the options is wrong, it all depends on the preferences of the chef. Here's how to make a Red Velvet cake at home:

Cooked food

Cooked food recipes: how to cook cooked food and the tastiest recipes for cooked food recipes, order cooked food, fast food, cooked food recipes, Lebanese food, Mexican food, fish food, spinach food, Turkish food, chicken food.

Spinach dish with bechamel sauce

Spinach, Cooked food, Vegetable dishes 1 kg fresh spinach or 500 g frozen spinach 1 cube of butter 2 teaspoons flour 200 ml milk 2 cloves garlic salt pepper nutmeg juice from half a lemon

Celery dish with olives

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Pea dish with carrots - fasting

Cooked food, Vegetable food, Fasting food 500 g peas peas 2 carrots match 1 onion 2-3 tablespoons tomato paste 2 tablespoons flour 3 tablespoons oil salt pepper dill

Pui Cacciatore, A Simple Food Full Of Aromas

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Brussels Sprouts With Parmesan

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Cooked food, Liver, Chicken 400 g liver pepper salt 3 tablespoons olive oil 300 ml white wine 3 onions

Pui Parmigiana

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Mushrooms With Rosemary And Garlic

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Bean stew (fasting)

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Peppers stuffed with 4 types of cheese

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Liver In Rosemary Sauce

Food, Cooked food - 500 grams of chicken liver - 50 grams of butter (about a quarter pack) - 1 onion - 1 teaspoon rosemary - 1 teaspoon vegeta - 1 teaspoon paprika - 1/2 teaspoon pepper - 1/2 teaspoon thyme - oil

Pumpkin meatballs - fasting

Cooked food, Fasting food, Vegetable food 2 pumpkin 1 potato 1 onion 100 g flour 2 cloves garlic 1 bunch dill salt pepper 1/2 teaspoon paprika oil for frying

Zucchini With Parmesan In Aluminum Foil

Garnishes, Cooked food 1/4 cup butter 1/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese 1 teaspoon dried basil 1 teaspoon dried oregano salt and ground black pepper, to taste 4 zucchini, cut into 1 slices 1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes 2 tablespoons chopped parsley

Lamb Stew With Potatoes And Rosemary

Meat dishes, Cooked food 4 pieces lamb muscles 500g potatoes olive oil 3 cloves light 2 red onions 3 rosemary threads 200g kale 1 1/2 tablespoons balsamic vinegar lemon slices

Chicken Stroganoff

Meat dishes, Steaks, Cooked food 1 teaspoon paprika 1 tablespoon olive oil 8 chicken legs, boneless 200g mushrooms 4 oregano sprigs 2 cloves garlic, slices 125 ml white wine 125 ml sour cream 1 tablespoon mustard 2 broccoli ties

Baked potatoes

Food, Potato dishes, Vegetable food 1 kg potatoes 2 onions 2 teaspoons olive oil salt pepper thyme rosemary 350 ml chicken or vegetable soup

Chicken brine with polenta

Cooked food, Meat dishes, Chicken 1 medium-sized chicken 4 tomatoes 4 bell peppers 2 onions 1 hot pepper 1 head of garlic oil salt pepper parsley fresh

Irish Honey Tocana

Steaks, Meat dishes, Cooked food 900g lamb meat, boneless and cut into pieces 700g potatoes, cut into pieces 3pcs leeks, sliced ​​into 3 carrots 3 celery 400ml chicken soup 2 teaspoons thyme 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon ground pepper 1/4 cup chopped parsley

Brown Rice Pilaf With Shrimp

Garnishes, Main course, Seafood 2 x 250g basmati brown rice 30g butter 2 cloves garlic 1 teaspoon coriander 1 teaspoon turmeric 150g shrimp 100g peas 2 green onions, finely chopped 50g fresh coriander cashews

Pui Panzanella

Cooked food, Steaks, Meat dishes 8 chicken legs 55g olives 1 red onion, cut into rings 200g bell peppers, small 2 teaspoon oregano 3 cloves garlic, finely chopped 2 tablespoons vinegar 100ml olive oil 4 large slices of bread 4 tomatoes , cut in half 1/2 bunch of basil

Mushroom stew - fasting

Mushroom dishes, Cooked food, Fasting food 500 g mushrooms 2 onions 2 cloves garlic 1 red kapia pepper 3-4 tablespoons oil 150 ml tomato sauce salt pepper green parsley (optional)

Pork With Tarragon

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Nicoise stew made of chicken legs

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Cabbage soup - ideal for slimming belts

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Spanakopita - Greek pie with spinach and feta cheese

Vegetable dishes, Spinach, Pie 500 g frozen spinach 200 g feta cheese 1 packet puff pastry olive oil 1 bunch green onion pepper 1 tablespoon green parsley 2 cloves garlic 1 egg

Baked Chicken With Celery Chips

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Pork Medallion With Chilli, Lemon And Cream

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Pui Hunter

Meat dishes, Steaks, Cooked food 1 teaspoon olive oil 4 chicken legs 1 onion, chopped 2 cloves garlic, crushed 2 teaspoons chopped rosemary 1 red bell pepper, cut into strips 120g green olives, pitted 250 ml red wine 400g chopped tomatoes in broth 1.

Parmesan cheese

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Mushroom Life

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Monastery chicken with smoked and sour cream

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Beef goulash - the original Hungarian recipe

Cooked food, Potato dishes, Meat dishes 750 g beef 40 g oil 2 red onions 4-5 potatoes 3 carrots 1/2 celery 2 tomatoes 1 red bell pepper 4 cloves garlic parsley salt pepper paprika for dumplings: 2 eggs 2 tablespoons water 150 g salt flour

Chicken With Mushrooms And Tarragon

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Tocata De Vita, La Foc Mic

Cooked food, Meat dishes 900g beef, diced 1/4 cup flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon black pepper 1 clove garlic, chopped 1 bay leaf 1 teaspoon paprika 1 teaspoon worcestershire sauce 1 onion , chopped 1 1/2 cups beef soup 3 potatoes.

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Apricot Chicken

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Steaks, Cooked food 800g broccoli 2 tablespoons oil 800g minced beef 1 onion 2 tablespoons worcestershire sauce 1 teaspoon garlic powder 1 1/4 teaspoon salt 4 cups skim milk 1/3 cup cornstarch 2 cups cheddar cheese, grated 1 / 4 teaspoons turmeric 4 dogs.

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Steaks, Meat dishes, Cooked food 1 fennel bulb, cut into thick slices length 1 apple, sliced ​​1 red onion, sliced ​​1 lemon, sliced ​​4 cloves garlic 60 ml olive oil 4 x 200g pork chops 125 ml apple cider 1 tablespoon parsley mustard

Orecchiette With Shrimp And Tomatoes

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Peppers stuffed with mushrooms - fasting recipe

Cooked food, Fasting food, Meal with vegetables 400 g mushrooms 150 g rice 2 onions 1 carrot 2-3 tablespoons oil 3 tomatoes 1 teaspoon thyme 1 link dill 1 link parsley salt pepper 2 bay leaves 500 ml tomato juice 2 tablespoons flour 6-8 teaspoons bell peppers

11 Mexican chocolate desserts that we want to make again and again

Unlike typical chocolate bars, Mexican chocolate is a little hard and a little bloody and is not often eaten whole. It is usually melted in water (or milk) to make hot Mexican drinks or used to bring authentic flavor to mole sauce.

Flavored with cinnamon, almonds, vanilla and sometimes chili, this sweet chocolate is available in Latin markets or on the Latin food aisle. Here are 11 Mexican chocolate desserts and the recipes made authentic Mexican dish, such as Mexican hot chocolate, Mexican Guinness chocolate cake, churros and Mexican chocolate sauce, Mexican hot chocolate custard and more.

1. Chocolate Atoll: A thick, hot, chocolate-based drink from Mexico that doesn't look like any hot chocolate you've ever tasted.

Two. Mexican Bundt Chocolate Cake with Almond Liquor Tequila Ganache: This decadent and rich chocolate cake has aromas similar to a coffee cake covered with silky and smooth ganache.

3. Kahlua Cheesecake with Mexican Chocolate: Only the title says it all - delicious, rich and decadent.

Four. Chinese Guinness Cake with Chocolate: A small fusion between Irish and Mexican. The aromas of the dense coffee cake, with subtleties of cinnamon from Mexican chocolate and stout, give it a rich coffee aroma.

5. Mexican muffins with chocolate lava: Easy to make and perfectly sized. The desert no longer becomes heavenly.

6. Churros and Mexican Chocolate Sauce: Churros, a sweet pastry with fried dough, makes a light and fun dessert. This simple churros recipe with delicious Mexican chocolate sauce will be a sure hit for your family!

7. Mexican Salty Chocolate-Chile Caramels: Sweet, salty and spicy? My cam combo!

8. Mexican Hot Chocolate: This hot cup of hot chocolate is like a big hug fromGranny(grandmother).

9. Mexican chocolate bread pudding: I am a big fan of bread pudding and I have the feeling that it, with the addition of chocolate, would be so sweet and delicious.

10. Simply irresistible Mexican hot chocolate flan: Sounds like a heavenly dessert perfect for the holidays.

eleven. Aaron Sanchez's perfect mole: Mole, Mexico's legendary complex sauce with many ingredients, pairs perfectly with chicken.

How to fill tofu with fish paste | Hong Kong food blog with recipes, cooking tips, mainly Chinese and Asian style

Fried stuffed tofu 煎 釀 豆腐 was once a popular dim sum dish here, dating back to the days when traditional dim sum carts were still used in many restaurants. At that time, they were ladies ready to propel the cart (with a built-in hot plate) with which they fried tofu and various dim sum,
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October 16, 2020

Spanakopita, Greek pie

Spanakopita is, as the name suggests, a spinach dish. It is a tasty Greek pie with crispy leaves and a filling of spinach and feta cheese, which can be served both as an appetizer and as a snack between main meals.

If you are struggling to convince the little ones to eat spinach, you must try this recipe & # 8211 in this pie, spinach will be appreciated by even the most capricious in the family.

Preparation time: 2 hours

Number of servings: 18 servings


For the dough:

  • 2 cups of Flour 000 Grandma's shelf + some more to knead
  • 5 teaspoons olive oil
  • 1/2 teaspoon fine table salt
  • 2 teaspoons of vinegar
  • 3/4 cup of lukewarm water
  • 2 tablespoons cornstarch
  • 1/4 cup melted butter
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil.

For the filling:

  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 312 g spinach
  • 1 leek chopped into thin slices
  • 3 chopped green onions
  • 1 cup shredded feta cheese
  • 3 eggs
  • 3 tablespoons ricotta
  • 1/4 cup finely chopped fresh dill.

Method of preparation:

Roll up your sleeves, mute your Greek music and take a large bowl in which you will put the 2 cups of flour. Make a small bed of flour with your fingers, in the middle, and put the olive oil, salt, then the vinegar followed by the lukewarm water. Mix until a dough is formed that you will take out on the work table, previously covered with a generous layer of flour.

Continue to knead the dough for 10-15 minutes, until it becomes very elastic and no longer sticks to your hands. Then form a ball of dough that you will cover with plastic wrap and leave it at room temperature for at least half an hour, ideally even 3 hours.

As long as the dough rests, you can prepare the filling. In a non-stick pan, heat the olive oil over medium heat, then sauté both the leeks and the green onions for 3-5 minutes. After the leeks and onions have softened, add the spinach and mix well, then let it cook for about 7 minutes & # 8211 if necessary, you can add a little olive oil. Put this composition aside.

After the dough has rested long enough, take it out on the work table and then shape it with your hands in a cylindrical shape & you should get a roll about 25 centimeters long. Cut it in half, then cut the halves in half, then repeat the operation and you will get 8 pieces that you will shape into a ball. Place the dough balls on a plate and cover them with plastic wrap to prevent them from drying out.

Sprinkle the cornstarch over the flour on the work table and then take a ball of dough, which you will roll in this mixture of starch and flour before spreading it with the rolling pin. You will get a round sheet of dough with a diameter of 12 centimeters. Do the same with all the dough balls.

Then melt the butter in a bowl in the microwave. After it cools down a bit, mix it with the 2 tablespoons of olive oil. Then take a flat, round plate, on which you will place a sheet of dough and grease it with the mixture of butter and olive oil. Continue with 4 more sheets of dough, but the last one, the one above, you will not grease it on top. Use your fingertips to press the edges of the dough sheets. Put the plate in the fridge. Do the same with the remaining 3 sheets of dough and put them in the fridge.

Meanwhile, prepare the filling by mixing, in a large bowl, the feta cheese, ricotta, dill, but also the spinach composition from the pan. Mix well, season with salt and pepper, then incorporate the beaten eggs.

Preheat the oven to 180 degrees Celsius. Prepare a round, pie tray, covering it with baking paper and a generous layer of butter and oil. Take the stack of 5 sheets of dough out of the fridge, place it on the surface covered with flour and cornstarch, then use the rolling pin to thin the sheets. Make sure the sheet has a diameter 5 cm larger than the diameter of the tray. Then transfer the sheet thus obtained to the tray, leaving the edges hanging next to the tray. Grease the sheet with butter and olive oil.

Take the stack of 3 sheets of dough out of the fridge and do the same. After that, place the already prepared filling in the tray, over the first sheet of dough already spread. Distribute the filling evenly and cover it with the other sheet of dough already stretched (made of the 3 sheets). Grab the hanging edges of the first sheet of dough over the second. Grease the surface of the Greek pie with butter and olive oil. Use a sharp knife to slice the pie and then put it in the oven. Allow the spanakopita to brown in the preheated oven for 60 minutes. Then take it out of the oven and let the pie cool for 10 minutes before serving.

Spanakopita can be served hot, but also cold, simple, as well as with Greek yogurt with & # 8211 but there is a condition for its taste to be perfect: to be served in the company of loved ones. Good appetite!

Chocolate fudge or quick homemade chocolate: find out how!

Chocolate Fudge, known as homemade chocolate in Romania, is a dessert specific to the United States of America, which is based on chocolate, butter and condensed milk. The recipe differs from that of Romanian homemade chocolate, which contains cocoa, butter and powdered milk.

With a texture reminiscent of caramels, this chocolate fudge is often served on holidays, its enticing aromas perfectly complementing their festive air. It can be prepared with the little ones, being a fun activity for the whole family.

The origins of fudge date back to the late nineteenth century in the United States. Various fudge recipes were printed in the newspapers of the time. Being an easy dessert to prepare, which does not require much effort, it has become very popular.

If you want to make chocolate fudge at home, follow the steps below and you will not fail:


cuisine is the study of the relationship between culture and food. It is often wrong to consider that the term gastronomy refers exclusively to the art of cooking (see Culinary Arts), but this is only a small part of this science. It cannot always be said that a chef is also a gourmet.

Etymologically, the word "gastronomy" is derived from the ancient Greek, γαστήρ (spend) meaning "stomach" and νόμος (names) - "knowledge" or "law".

Gastronomy studies various cultural components that have food and food, in general, as a basic element. Thus, it is related to the Fine Arts and Social Sciences in terms of culture, and to the Natural Sciences regarding the digestive system of the human body.

A gourmet's main activities include discovering, tasting, experimenting, researching, understanding and documenting food and food in writing. Gastronomy is therefore a rather complex activity. Watching carefully, everyone will discover that around food there is dance, theater, painting, sculpture, literature, architecture and music - in other words, the Fine Arts. Moreover, there is physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, geology, agronomy, as well as anthropology, history, philosophy, psychology and sociology.

The first basic study of gastronomy is probably the so-called essay The physiology of taste (Physiology of taste) published by Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin in 1825. Unlike traditional cookbooks, this paper deals with the relationship between the senses and food, treating tableware as a science.

In 2004, the world's first university dedicated to the principles of gastronomy, called the University of Gastronomic Sciences (Università degli Studi di Scienze Gastronomiche), was founded in Bra (Italy). Its mission is to create an international research and education center for those working to improve cultivation methods, protect biodiversity, and achieve an organic relationship between gastronomy and agricultural sciences.


Mexican cuisine is a complex and ancient cuisine, with techniques and skills developed over thousands of years of history. [5] It is created mostly with ingredients native to Mexico, as well as those brought over by the Spanish conquistadors, with some new influences since then. [6] Mexican cuisine has been influenced by its proximity to the US-Mexican border. For example, burritos were thought to have been invented for easier transportation of beans by wrapping them in tortillas for field work. Modifications like these brought Mexican cuisine to the United States, where states like Arizona further adapted burritos by deep frying them, creating the modern chimichanga. [7]

In addition to staples, such as corn and chile peppers, native ingredients include tomatoes, squashes, avocados, cocoa and vanilla, [4] as well as ingredients not generally used in other cuisines, such as edible flowers, vegetables like huauzontle and papaloquelite, or small Creole avocados, whose skin is edible. [8] Chocolate originated in Mexico and was prized by the Aztecs. It remains an important ingredient in Mexican cookery.

Vegetables play an important role in Mexican cuisine. Common vegetables include zucchini, cauliflower, corn, potatoes, spinach, Swiss chard, mushrooms, tomatoes (red tomato), green tomato, etc. Other traditional vegetable ingredients include Chili pepper, huitlacoche (corn fungus), huauzontle, and nopal (cactus pads) to name a few.

European contributions include pork, chicken, beef, cheese, herbs and spices, as well as some fruits.

Tropical fruits, many of which are indigenous to Mexico and the Americas, such as guava, prickly pear, sapote, mangoes, bananas, pineapple and cherimoya (custard apple) are popular, especially in the center and south of the country. [9]

Edible insects have been enjoyed in Mexico for millennia. Entemophagy or insect-eating is becoming increasingly popular outside of poor and rural areas for its unique flavors, sustainability, and connection to pre-Hispanic heritage. Popular species include chapulines (grasshoppers or crickets), escamoles (ant larvae), cumiles (stink bugs) and ahuatle (water bug eggs). [10]

Corn Edit

Despite the introduction of wheat and rice to Mexico, corn is the most commonly consumed starch in almost all areas of the country and serves as the main ingredient in many local recipes (e.g. corn tortillas, cornflour, pozole, menudo, tamal). While it is eaten fresh, most corn is dried, nixtamalized and ground into a dough called table. [11] [12] This dough is used both fresh and fermented to make a wide variety of dishes from drinks (atole, pozole, etc.) to tamales, soups, and much more. However, the most common way to eat corn in Mexico is in the form of a tortilla, which accompanies almost every dish. Tortillas are made of corn in most of the country, but other versions exist, such as wheat in the north or plantain, yuca and wild greens in Oaxaca. [4] [11]

Chili peppers Edit

The other basic ingredient in all parts of Mexico is the chile pepper. [13] Mexican food has a reputation for being very spicy, but it has a wide range of flavors and while many spices are used for cooking, not all are spicy. Many dishes also have subtle flavors. [5] [8] Chiles are indigenous to Mexico and their use dates back thousands of years. They are used for their flavors and not just their heat, with Mexico using the widest variety. If a savory dish or snack does not contain chile pepper, hot sauce is usually added, and chile pepper is often added to fresh fruit and sweets. [13]

The importance of the chile goes back to the Mesoamerican period, where it was considered to be as much of a staple as corn and beans. In the 16th century, Bartolomé de las Casas wrote that without chiles, the indigenous people did not think they were eating. Even today, most Mexicans believe that their national identity would be at a loss without chiles and the many varieties of sauces and salsas created using chiles as their base. [14]

Many dishes in Mexico are defined by their sauces and the chiles those sauces contain (which are usually very spicy), rather than the meat or vegetable that the sauce covers. These dishes include entomatada (in tomato sauce), adobo or adobados, pipians and moles. A hominy soup called pozole is defined as white, green or red depending on the chile sauce used or omitted. Tamales are differentiated by the filling which is again defined by the sauce (red or green chile pepper strips or mole). Dishes without a sauce are rarely eaten without a salsa or without fresh or pickled chiles. This includes street foods, such as tacos, tortas, soup, sopes, tlacoyos, tlayudas, gorditas and sincronizadas. [15] For most dishes, it is the type of chile used that gives it its main flavor. [14] Chipotle, smoked-dried jalapeño pepper, is very common in Mexican cuisine.

Mexico contributed to the world products. Without this, it would not be possible to understand world gastronomy. Among them are corn, beans, chili, avocado, vanilla, cocoa, tomato, pumpkin, chayote, sapote, mamey, papaya, guava, nopal, tobacco (sharing the origin with other countries in America) and turkey.

Spanish contributions Edit

Together with Mesoamerica, Spain is the second basis of Mexican cuisine, contributing in two fundamental ways: Firstly, they brought with them old world staples and ingredients which did not exist in the Americas such as sugar, wheat, rice, onions, garlic, limes , oil, dairy products, pork, beef and many others.

Secondly they brought various culinary traditions from the Iberian peninsula which have become prevalent in Mexico. Equally, the discovery of the incorporation of New World ingredients to Spanish cuisine has led to many shared foods such as chorizo ​​which uses paprika.

Spanish cuisine was in turn heavily influenced by its Moorish heritage and this created one of the earliest instances of the world's greatest Fusion cuisines. The Spanish also introduced the technique of frying in pork fat. Today, the main meats found in Mexico are pork, chicken, beef, goat, and sheep. Seafood and fish are also popular, especially along the coasts, and the way of cooking it commonly has Spanish origin such as Huachinango a la vizcaina. [16]

Cheesemaking in Mexico has evolved its own specialties, although uniquely Spanish cheese such as Manchego is also typical of Mexico. It is an important economic activity, especially in the north, and is frequently done at home. The main cheese-making areas are Chihuahua, Oaxaca, Querétaro, and Chiapas. Goat cheese is still made, but it is not as popular and is harder to find in stores. [17]

Churros are a common snack originating in Spain and because sugar cane was brought to the Americas through Spanish colonization, all of Mexico's sweets have a Hispanic origin, often with a Muslim heritage such as Alfeñiques.

Home cooking Edit

In most of Mexico, especially in rural areas, much of the food is consumed in the home. [18] Cooking for the family is usually considered to be women's work, and this includes cooking for celebrations as well. [19] Traditionally girls have been considered ready to marry when they can cook, and cooking is considered a main talent for housewives. [20]

The main meal of the day in Mexico is the "comida", meaning 'meal' in Spanish. This refers to dinner or supper. It sometimes begins with soup, often chicken broth with pasta or a "dry soup", which is pasta or rice flavored with onions, garlic or vegetables. The main course is meat served in a cooked sauce with salsa on the side, accompanied with beans and tortillas and often with a fruit drink. [21]

In the evening, it is common to eat leftovers from the comida or sweet bread accompanied by coffee or chocolate. Breakfast can consist of meat in broth (such as pancita), tacos, enchiladas or meat with eggs. This is usually served with beans, tortillas, and coffee or juice. [21]

Food and festivals Edit

Mexican cuisine is elaborate and often tied to symbolism and festivals, which is one reason it was named as an example of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. [4] Many of the foods of Mexico are complicated because of their relation to the social structure of the country. Food preparation, especially for family and social events, is considered to be an investment in order to maintain social relationships. [25] Even the idea of flavor is considered to be social, with meals prepared for certain dinners and certain occasions when they are considered the most tasty. [26]

The ability to cook well, called "sazón" (lit. seasoning) is considered to be a gift generally gained from experience and a sense of commitment to the diners. [27] For the Day of the Dead festival, foods such as tamales and mole are set out on altars and it is believed that the visiting dead relatives eat the essence of the food. If eaten afterwards by the living it is considered to be tasteless. [26] In central Mexico, the main festival foods are mole, barbacoa, carnitas and mixiotes. They are often prepared to feed hundreds of guests, requiring groups of cooks. The cooking is part of the social custom meant to bind families and communities. [28]

Mexican regional home cooking is completely different from the food served in most Mexican restaurants outside Mexico, which is usually some variety of Tex-Mex. [8] The original versions of Mexican dishes are vastly different from their Tex-Mex variation.

Some of Mexico's traditional foods involved complex or long cooking processes, including cooking underground (such as cochinita pibil). Before industrialization, traditional women spent several hours a day boiling dried corn then grinding it on a metate to make the dough for tortillas, cooking them one-by-one on a comal griddle. In some areas, tortillas are still made this way. Sauces and salsas were also ground in a mortar called a molcajete. Today, blenders are more often used, though the texture is a bit different. Most people in Mexico would say that those made with a molcajete taste better, but few do this now. [29]

The most important food for festivals and other special occasions is mole, especially mole poblano in the center of the country. [28] [30] Mole is served at Christmas, Easter, Day of the Dead and at birthdays, baptisms, weddings and funerals, and tends to be eaten only for special occasions because it is such a complex and time-consuming dish. [28] [31] While still dominant in this way, other foods have become acceptable for these occasions, such as barbacoa, carnitas and mixiotes, especially since the 1980s. This may have been because of economic crises at that time, allowing for the substitution of these cheaper foods, or the fact that they can be bought ready-made or may already be made as part of the family business. [32] [33]

Another important festive food is the tamale, also known as tamal in Spanish. This is a filled cornmeal dumpling, steamed in a wrapping (usually a corn husk or banana leaf) and one of the basic staples in most regions of Mexico. It has its origins in the pre-Hispanic era and today is found in many varieties in all of Mexico. Like mole, it is complicated to prepare and best done in large amounts. [34] Tamales are associated with certain celebrations such as Candlemas. [32] They are wrapped in corn husks in the highlands and desert areas of Mexico and in banana leaves in the tropics. [35]

Street food Edit

Mexican street food can include tacos, quesadillas, pambazos, tamales, huaraches, alambres, al pastor, and food not suitable to cook at home, including barbacoa, carnitas, and since many homes in Mexico do not have or make use of ovens, roasted chicken. [36] One attraction of street food in Mexico is the satisfaction of hunger or craving without all the social and emotional connotation of eating at home, although longtime customers can have something of a friendship/familial relationship with a chosen vendor. [37]

Tacos are the top-rated and most well-known street Mexican food. It is made up of meat or other fillings wrapped in a tortilla often served with cheese added. Vegetarian fillings include mushrooms, potatoes, rice, or beans. [38]

The best known of Mexico's street foods is the taco, whose origin is based on the pre-Hispanic custom of picking up other foods with tortillas as utensils were not used. [11] The origin of the word is in dispute, with some saying it is derived from Nahuatl and others from various Spanish phrases. [39] Tacos are not eaten as the main meal they are generally eaten before midday or late in the evening. Just about any other foodstuff can be wrapped in a tortilla, and in Mexico, it varies from rice, to meat (plain or in sauce), to cream, to vegetables, to cheese, or simply to plain chile peppers or fresh salsa. Preferred fillings vary from region to region with pork generally found more often in the center and south, beef in the north, seafood along the coasts, and chicken and lamb in most of the country. [40]

Another popular street food, especially in Mexico City and the surrounding area is the torta. It consists of a roll of some type, stuffed with several ingredients. This has its origins in the 19th century, when the French introduced a number of new kinds of bread. The torta began by splitting the roll and adding beans. Today, refried beans can still be found on many kinds of tortas. In Mexico City, the most common roll used for tortas is called telera, a relatively flat roll with two splits on the upper surface. In Puebla, the preferred bread is called a cemita, as is the sandwich. In both areas, the bread is stuffed with various fillings, especially if it is a hot sandwich, with beans, cream (mayonnaise is rare) and some kind of hot chile pepper. [41]

The influence of American fast food on Mexican street food grew during the late 20th century. One example of this is the invention of the Sonoran hot dog in the late 1980s. The frankfurters are usually boiled then wrapped in bacon and fried. They are served in a bolillo-style bun, typically topped by a combination of pinto beans, diced tomatoes, onions and jalapeño peppers, and other condiments. [41]

Along the US-Mexican border, specifically dense areas like Tijuana, Mexican vendors sell food such as fruit melanged with Tajin spice to people crossing the border via carts. In recent years, these food carts have been threatened by tightened border security at the port of entry. Both the US and the Mexican governments have proposed a project that would widen the streets at the border, allowing for more people to pass through the border, although widening them would decimate neighboring mercados that rely on the business of travelers. [42]

Besides food, street vendors also sell various kinds of drinks (including aguas frescas , tejuino , and tepache ) and treats (such as bionicos , tostilocos , and raspados ). Most tamale stands sell atole as a standard accompaniment.

Mexican-style torta with typical accompaniments

Mini bean gordita flavored with avocado leaf Veracruz style.

Pre-Hispanic period Edit

Around 7000 BCE, the indigenous peoples of Mexico and Central America hunted game and gathered plants, including wild chili peppers. Corn was not yet cultivated, so one main source of calories was roasted agave hearts. By 1200 BCE, corn was domesticated and a process called nixtamalization, or treatment with lye, was developed to soften corn for grinding and improve its nutritional value. This allowed the creation of tortillas and other kinds of flat breads. [43] The indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica had numerous stories about the origin of corn, usually related to being a gift of one or more gods, such as Quetzalcoatl. [44]

The other staple was beans, eaten with corn and some other plants as a complementary protein. Other protein sources included amaranth, domesticated turkey, insects such as grasshoppers, beetles and ant larvae, iguanas, and turtle eggs on the coastlines. [45] Vegetables included squash and their seeds chilacayote jicama, a kind of sweet potato and edible flowers, especially those of squash. The chile pepper was used as food, ritual and as medicine. [45]

When the Spanish arrived, the Aztecs had sophisticated agricultural techniques and an abundance of food, which was the base of their economy. It allowed them to expand an empire, bringing in tribute which consisted mostly of foods the Aztecs could not grow themselves. [14] According to Bernardino de Sahagún, the Nahua peoples of central Mexico ate corn, beans, turkey, fish, small game, insects and a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, pulses, seeds, tubers, wild mushrooms, plants and herbs that they collected or cultivated. [46]

Modern Period Edit

After the Conquest, the Spanish introduced a variety of foodstuffs and cooking techniques, like frying, to the New World. [47] Regional cuisines remained varied, with native staples more prevalent in the rural southern areas and Spanish foods taking root in the more sparsely populated northern region. [48] European style wheat bread was initially met unfavorably with Moctezuma's emissaries who reportedly described it as tasting of "dried maize stalks". On the Spanish side, Bernal Díaz del Castillo complained about the "maize cake" rations on campaign. [48]

The cuisine of Spain is a Mediterranean cuisine influenced by its Arab period composed of a number of staples such as Olive oil and rice. [47] [49] Spanish settlers introduced these staples to the region, although some continued to be imported such as wine, brandy, nuts, olives, spices and capers. [48] They introduced domesticated animals, such as pigs, cows, chickens, goats and sheep for meat and milk, raising the consumption of protein. Cheese became the most important dairy product. [17] [47]

The Spanish brought rice to Mexico, [12] along with sugar cane, used extensively creation of many kinds of sweets, especially local fruits in syrup. A sugar-based candy craft called alfeñique was imported and is now used for the Day of the Dead. [50] Over time ingredients like olive oil, rice, onions, garlic, oregano, coriander, cinnamon, cloves became incorporated with native ingredients and cooking techniques. [47] One of the main avenues for the mixing of the two cuisines was in convents. [47]

Despite the influence of Spanish culture, Mexican cuisine has maintained its base of corn, beans and chili peppers. [47] Natives continued to be reliant on maize it was less expensive than the wheat favored by European settlers, it was easier to cultivate and produced higher yields. European control over the land grew stronger with the founding of wheat farms. In 18th century Mexico City, wheat was baked into leaved rolls called pan frances or pan espanol, but only two bakers were allowed to bake this style of bread and they worked on consignment to the viceroy and the archbishop. Large ring loaves of choice flour known as pan floreado were available for wealthy "Creoles". Other styles of bread used lower-quality wheat and maize to produce pan comun, pambazo and cemita. [48]

In the eighteenth century, an Italian Capuchin friar, Ilarione da Bergamo, included descriptions of food in his travelogue. He noted that tortillas were eaten not only by the poor, by the upper class as well. He described lunch fare as pork products like chorizo and ham being eaten between tortillas, with a piquant red chili sauce. For drink pulque, as well as corn-based atole, and for those who could afford it chocolate-based drinks were consumed twice a day. According to de Bergamo's account neither coffee nor wine are consumed, and evening meals ended with a small portion of beans in a thick soup instead, "served to set the stage for drinking water". [52]

During the 19th century, Mexico experienced an influx of various immigrants, including French, Lebanese, German, Chinese and Italian, which have had some effect on the food. [47] During the French intervention in Mexico, French food became popular with the upper classes. An influence on these new trends came from chef Tudor, who was brought to Mexico by the Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg. [53] One lasting evidence of this is the variety of breads and sweet breads, such as bolillos, conchas and much more, which can be found in Mexican bakeries. [54] The Germans brought beer brewing techniques and the Chinese added their cuisine to certain areas of the country. [55] This led to Mexico characterizing its cuisine more by its relation to popular traditions rather than on particular cooking techniques. [56]

Since the 20th century, there has been an interchange of food influences between Mexico and the United States. Mexican cooking was of course still practiced in what is now the Southwest United States after the Mexican–American War, but Diana Kennedy, in her book The Cuisines of Mexico (published in 1972), drew a sharp distinction between Mexican food and Tex-Mex. [43]

Tex-Mex food was developed from Mexican and Anglo influences, and was traced to the late 19th century in Texas. It still continues to develop with flour tortillas becoming popular north of the border only in the latter 20th century. [43] From north to south, much of the influence has been related to food industrialization, as well as the greater availability overall of food, especially after the Mexican Revolution. One other very visible sign of influence from the United States is the appearance of fast foods, such as hamburgers, hot dogs and pizza. [57]

In the latter 20th century, international influence in Mexico has led to interest and development of haute cuisine. In Mexico, many professional chefs are trained in French or international cuisine, but the use of Mexican staples and flavors is still favored, including the simple foods of traditional markets. It is not unusual to see some quesadillas or small tacos among the other hors d'oeuvres at fancy dinner parties in Mexico. [8]

Professional cookery in Mexico is growing and includes an emphasis on traditional methods and ingredients. In the cities, there is interest in publishing and preserving what is authentic Mexican food. This movement is traceable to 1982 with the Mexican Culinary Circle of Mexico City. It was created by a group of women chefs and other culinary experts as a reaction to the fear of traditions being lost with the increasing introduction of foreign techniques and foods. [8] In 2010, Mexico's cuisine was recognized by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. [4]

In contemporary times, various world cuisines have become popular in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made by using a variety of sauces based on mango and tamarind, and very often served with serrano-chili blended soy sauce, or complemented with vinegar, habanero peppers, and chipotle peppers.

Corn in Mexico is not only eaten, but also drunk as a beverage. Corn is the base of a hot drink called atole, which is then flavored with fruit, chocolate, rice or other flavors. Fermented corn is the base of a cold drink, which goes by different names and varieties, such as tejuino, pozol and others. Aguas frescas are flavored drinks usually made from fruit, water and sugar. Beverages also include hibiscus iced tea, one made from tamarind and one from rice called "horchata". One variant of coffee is café de olla, which is coffee brewed with cinnamon and raw sugar. [59] Many of the most popular beverages can be found sold by street vendors and juice bars in Mexico.

Chocolate played an important part in the history of Mexican cuisine. The word "chocolate" originated from Mexico's Aztec cuisine, derived from the Nahuatl word xocolatl. Chocolate was first drunk rather than eaten. It was also used for religious rituals. The Maya civilization grew cacao trees [60] and used the cacao seeds it produced to make a frothy, bitter drink. [61] The drink, called xocoatl, was often flavored with vanilla, chile pepper, and achiote. [62]

Alcoholic beverages from Mexico include tequila, pulque, aguardiente, mezcal and charanda. Wine, rum and beer are also produced. [63] The most common alcoholic beverage consumed with food in Mexico is beer, followed by tequila. [5] A classic margarita, a popular cocktail, is composed of tequila, cointreau and lime juice.

Rompope is believed to have been originally made in the convents of the city of Puebla, Mexico. The word rompope is a derivation of the word rompon, which is used to describe the Spanish version of eggnog that came to Mexico.

A popular Soft drink from Mexico is Sangria Señorial a sangria-flavored, non-alcoholic beverage. Sangria is a Spanish drink that was introduced by Spaniards, as was Horchata and Agua de Jamaica.

Chiapas Edit

Similar to other regions in Mexico, corn is a dietary staple and other indigenous foods remain strong in the cuisine as well. Along with a chile called simojovel, used nowhere else in the country, the cuisine is also distinguished by the use of herbs, such as chipilín and hierba santa. [64] [65] Like in Oaxaca, tamales are usually wrapped in banana leaves (or sometimes with the leaves of hoja santa), but often chipilín is incorporated into the dough. As in the Yucatán Peninsula, boiled corn is drunk as a beverage called pozol, but here it is usually flavored with all-natural cacao. [66] Another beverage (which can be served hot or cold) typical from this region is Tascalate, which is made of powdered maize, cocoa beans, achiote (annatto), chilies, pine nuts and cinnamon. [66]

The favored meats are beef, pork and chicken (introduced by the Spanish), especially in the highlands, which favors the raising of livestock. The livestock industry has also prompted the making of cheese, mostly done on ranches and in small cooperatives, with the best known from Ocosingo, Rayón and Pijijiapan. Meat and cheese dishes are frequently accompanied by vegetables, such as squash, chayote, and carrots. [65]

Mexico City Edit

The main feature of Mexico City cooking is that it has been influenced by those of the other regions of Mexico, as well as a number of foreign influences. [67] [68] This is because Mexico City has been a center for migration of people from all over Mexico since pre-Hispanic times. Most of the ingredients of this area's cooking are not grown in situ, but imported from all of the country (such as tropical fruits).

Street cuisine is very popular, with taco stands, and lunch counters on every street. Popular foods in the city include barbacoa (a specialty of the central highlands), birria (from western Mexico), cabrito (from the north), carnitas (originally from Michoacán), mole sauces (from Puebla and central Mexico), tacos with many different fillings, and large sub-like sandwiches called tortas, usually served at specialized shops called 'Torterías'. [69] This is also the area where most of Mexico's haute cuisine can be found. [68] There are eateries that specialize in pre-Hispanic food, including dishes with insects.

Northern Mexico Edit

The foods eaten in what is now the north of Mexico have differed from those in the south since the pre-Hispanic era. Here, the indigenous people were hunter-gatherers with limited agriculture and settlements because of the arid land. [70] [71]

When the Europeans arrived, they found much of the land in this area suitable for raising cattle, goats and sheep. This led to the dominance of meat, especially beef, in the region, and some of the most popular dishes include machaca, arrachera and cabrito. [70] [71] The region's distinctive cooking technique is grilling, as ranch culture has promoted outdoor cooking done by men. [71]

The ranch culture has also prompted cheese production and the north produces the widest varieties of cheese in Mexico. These include queso fresco (fresh farmer's cheese), ranchero (similar to Monterey Jack), cuajada (a mildly sweet, creamy curd of fresh milk), requesón (similar to cottage cheese or ricotta), Chihuahua's creamy semi-soft queso menonita, and fifty-six varieties of asadero (smoked cheese). [70]

Another important aspect of northern cuisine is the presence of wheat, especially in the use of flour tortillas. The area has at least forty different types of flour tortillas. [70] The main reason for this is that much of the land supports wheat production, introduced by the Spanish. These large tortillas allowed for the creation of burritos, usually filled with machaca in Sonora, which eventually gained popularity in the Southwest United States. [71]

The variety of foodstuffs in the north is not as varied as in the south of Mexico, because of the mostly desert climate. Much of the cuisine of this area is dependent on food preservation techniques, namely dehydration and canning. Dried foods include meat, chiles, squash, peas, corn, lentils, beans and dried fruit. A number of these are also canned. Preservation techniques change the flavor of foods for example, many chiles are less hot after drying. [70]

In Northeastern Mexico, during the Spanish colonial period, Nuevo León was founded and settled by Spanish families of Jewish origin (Crypto-Jews). They contributed to the regional cuisine with dishes, such as Pan de Semita or "Semitic Bread" (a type of bread made without leavening), and cabrito or "baby goat", which is the typical food of Monterrey and the state of Nuevo León, as well as some regions of Coahuila. [72] [73]

The north has seen waves of immigration by the Chinese, Mormons, and Mennonites, who have influenced the cuisines in areas, such as Chihuahua and Baja California. [71] Most recently, Baja Med cuisine has emerged in Ensenada and elsewhere in Baja California, combining Mexican and Mediterranean flavors.

Oaxaca Edit

The cooking of Oaxaca remained more intact after the conquest, as the Spanish took the area with less fighting and less disruption of the economy and food production systems. However, it was the first area to experience the mixing of foods and cooking styles, while central Mexico was still recuperating. Despite its size, the state has a wide variety of ecosystems and a wide variety of native foods. Vegetables are grown in the central valley, seafood is abundant on the coast and the area bordering Veracruz grows tropical fruits.

Much of the state's cooking is influenced by that of the Mixtec and, to a lesser extent, the Zapotec. Later in the colonial period, Oaxaca lost its position as a major food supplier and the area's cooking returned to a more indigenous style, keeping only a small number of foodstuffs, such as chicken and pork. It also adapted mozzarella, brought by the Spanish, and modified it to what is now known as Oaxaca cheese. [74] [75]

One major feature of Oaxacan cuisine is its seven mole varieties, second only to mole poblano in popularity. The seven are Negro (black), Amarillo (yellow), Coloradito (little red), Mancha Manteles (table cloth stainer), Chichilo (smoky stew), Rojo (red), and Verde (green). [75]

Corn is the staple food in the region. Tortillas are called blandas and are a part of every meal. Corn is also used to make empanadas, tamales and more. Black beans are favored, often served in soup or as a sauce for enfrijoladas. Oaxaca's regional chile peppers include pasilla oaxaqueña (red, hot and smoky), along with amarillos (yellow), chilhuacles, chilcostles and costeños. These, along with herbs, such as hoja santa, give the food its unique taste. [75]

Another important aspect of Oaxacan cuisine is chocolate, generally consumed as a beverage. It is frequently hand ground and combined with almonds, cinnamon and other ingredients. [75]

Veracruz Edit

The cuisine of Veracruz is a mix of indigenous, Afro-Mexican and Spanish. The indigenous contribution is in the use of corn as a staple, as well as vanilla (native to the state) and herbs called acuyo and hoja santa. It is also supplemented by a wide variety of tropical fruits, such as papaya, mamey and zapote, along with the introduction of citrus fruit and pineapple by the Spanish. The Spanish also introduced European herbs, such as parsley, thyme, marjoram, bay laurel, cilantro and others, which characterize much of the state's cooking. They are found in the best known dish of the region Huachinango a la veracruzana, a red snapper dish.

The African influence is from the importation of slaves through the Caribbean, who brought foods with them, which had been introduced earlier to Africa by the Portuguese. As it borders the Gulf coast, seafood figures prominently in most of the state. The state's role as a gateway to Mexico has meant that the dietary staple of corn is less evident than in other parts of Mexico, with rice as a heavy favorite. Corn dishes include garnachas (a kind of corn cake), which are readily available especially in the mountain areas, where indigenous influence is strongest. [76]

Western Mexico Edit

West of Mexico City is the Pacific coast and the states of Michoacán, Jalisco and Colima. The cuisine of Michoacan is based on the Purepecha culture which still dominates most of the state. The area has a large network of rivers and lakes providing fish. Its use of corn is perhaps the most varied. While atole is drunk in most parts of Mexico, it is made with more different flavors in Michoacán, including blackberry, cascabel chili and more. Tamales come in different shapes, wrapped in corn husks. These include those folded into polyhedrons called corundas and can vary in name if the filling is different. In the Bajío area, tamales are often served with a meat stew called churipo , which is flavored with cactus fruit. [77] [78]

The main Spanish contributions to Michoacán cuisine are rice, pork and spices. One of the best-known dishes from the state is morisquesta, which is a sausage and rice dish, closely followed by carnitas, which is deep-fried (confit technique) pork. The latter can be found in many parts of Mexico, often claimed to be authentically Michoacán. Other important ingredients in the cuisine include wheat (where bread symbolizes fertility) found in breads and pastries. Another is sugar, giving rise to a wide variety of desserts and sweets, such as fruit jellies and ice cream, mostly associated with the town of Tocumbo. The town of Cotija has a cheese named after it. The local alcoholic beverage is charanda, which is made with fermented sugar cane. [77]

The cuisine of the states of Jalisco and Colima is noted for dishes, such as birria, chilayo, menudo and pork dishes. [79] Jalisco's cuisine is known for tequila with the liquor produced only in certain areas allowed to use the name. The cultural and gastronomic center of the area is Guadalajara, an area where both agriculture and cattle raising have thrived. The best-known dish from the area is birria, a stew of goat, beef, mutton or pork with chiles and spices. [80]

An important street food is tortas ahogadas, where the torta (sandwich) is drowned in a chile sauce. Near Guadalajara is the town of Tonalá, known for its pozole, a hominy stew, reportedly said in the 16th century, to have been originally created with human flesh for ritual use. [81] [82] The area which makes tequila surrounds the city. A popular local drink is tejuino, made from fermented corn. Bionico is also a popular dessert in the Guadalajara area. [80]

On the Pacific coast, seafood is common, generally cooked with European spices along with chile, and is often served with a spicy salsa. Favored fish varieties include marlin, swordfish, snapper, tuna, shrimp and octopus. Tropical fruits are also important. [67] [80] The cuisine of the Baja California Peninsula is especially heavy on seafood, with the widest variety. It also features a mild green chile pepper, as well as dates, especially in sweets. [83]

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